FINANCIAL RISK FACTORS
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|FINANCIAL RISK FACTORS|
|FINANCIAL RISK FACTORS||
16. FINANCIAL RISK FACTORS
(a) Fair value
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability or, in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest. A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits from the asset’s highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would utilize the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are considered to be appropriate in the circumstances and for which there is sufficient data with unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy. This is described, as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Thereno . For financial assets and liabilities not measured at fair value, their carrying value is considered to approximate fair value due to their market terms.
The carrying values of cash, deposits, accounts receivables, trade payables, accrued liabilities, accrued interest payable, and purchase consideration payable approximate their fair values because of the short-term nature of these financial instruments. Long-term debt is recorded at amortized cost.
The following table summarizes the fair value hierarchy for the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that are re-measured at their fair values periodically:
16. FINANCIAL RISK FACTORS (Continued)
(a) Fair value (continued)
The following table summarizes the inputs used to value the contingent consideration in the table above:
The Company is exposed to credit risk, liquidity risk, and interest rate risk. The Company’s management oversees the management of these risks. The Company’s management is supported by the members of the Board of Directors that advise on financial risks and the appropriate financial risk governance framework for the Company. The Company’s financial risk activities are governed by policies and procedures and financial risks are identified, measured, and managed in accordance with the Company’s policies and the Company’s risk appetite.
(b) Credit risk
Credit risk is the risk of unexpected loss if a customer or third party to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations. Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash, deposits, and accounts receivable. To address its credit risk arising from cash and deposits, the Company ensures to keep these balances with reputable financial institutions. As of December 31, 2021, and 2020, substantially all of cash is estimated to be exposed to credit risks. The components of accounts receivable as of December 31, 2021, and 2020, were:
(c) Liquidity risk
Liquidity risk is the risk that the Company is unable to generate or obtain sufficient cash in a cost-effective manner to fund its obligations as they come due. The Company’s approach to managing liquidity risk is to ensure that it will have sufficient liquidity to meet liabilities when due. The Company manages liquidity risk through maintaining sufficient funds on hand and continuously monitoring forecast and actual cash flows. Refer to Notes 8 and 11 for future lease and debt commitments. The Company has the following gross obligations as of December 31, 2021, which are expected to be payable:
16. FINANCIAL RISK FACTORS (Continued)
(d) Interest rate risk
Interest rate risk is the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates. The Company is exposed to interest rate risk on its cash and long-term debts. Cash and deposits bear interest at market rates. The Company’s debts have fixed rates of interest. The Company does not use any derivative instruments to hedge against interest rate risk and believes that the change in interest rates will not have a significant impact on its financial results.
(e) Currency risk
The operating results and financial position of the Company are reported in United States dollars. As the Company operates in an international environment, some of the Company’s financial instruments and transactions are denominated in currencies other than the United States dollar. The results of the Company’s operations are subject to currency transaction and translation risks.
As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had no hedging agreements in place with respect to foreign exchange rates. The Company has not entered into any agreements or purchased any instruments to hedge possible currency risks at this time. The Company believes that a change in exchange rates will not have a significant impact on financial results. The Company performed a sensitivity analysis on the conversion rate applied to Canadian balances:
The disclosure of information that enables users of financial statements to evaluate the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments to which the entity is exposed. [Refer: Financial instruments, class [member]]
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef